Image for Rutin (CHO)
Rutin (C27H30O16)
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.

Related Terms

  • Alpha-glycosylrutin, ascorutin, benzopyrone, Birutan Forte, buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), dihydroxyethylrutoside, eldrin, Ercevit fort, ergot compound, essaven, flavanoid, Fleboside, Globulariacitrin, Globularicitrin, glucopyranoside, HR, hydrolytic enzymes (HE), hydroxyethyl rutoside, hydroxyethylrutosiden, ilixanthin, melin, myrticalorin, myrticolorin, myticolorin, osyritrin, oxyritin, oxerutin, paliuroside, Paroven® (UK, S. Africa, Australasia), paveron 75, phlebolan-spray, phlebotropic drugs, phytomelin, Q1, quercetin, quercetin rutinoside, Relvene® (France), rexiluven (DRA 363, Sandoven), ritmilen, rutabion, rutin trihydrate, rutinic acid, rutinion acid, rutosid, rutoside, rutozyd, sandoven, sophorin, tanrutin, tetrahydroxyethyl-quercitin, tetrahydroxyethylrutoside, tri-(hyroxyethyl)-rutin, trihydroxyethylrutoside ("varemoid"), trioxyethylrutin, troxerutin (CAS 7085-55-4), trypsin, Venoruton® (most of Continental Europe), Venoruton 1000®, Venoruton Forte®, vicalin, violaquercitrin, vitamin P.

Background

  • Rutin is a yellow crystalline flavonol glycoside (C27H30O16) that occurs in various plants (rue, tobacco, buckwheat, etc.). Upon hydrolysis (a chemical reaction that uses water to break down a compound), rutin yields quercetin and rutinose.
  • Rutin is used in many countries as a vasoprotectant and is an ingredient in numerous multivitamin preparations and herbal remedies. The rutosides are naturally occurring flavonoids that have documented effects on capillary permeability and edema (swelling) and have been used for the treatment of disorders of the venous and microcirculatory systems.
  • There is some evidence for the use of rutin for chronic venous insufficiency, edema, hemorrhoids, microangiopathy (disease of small blood vessels), varicosis and venous disorders. Well presented clinical trials are required in these fields before solid recommendations can be made.
  • Formulations, mainly consisting of the trihydroxyethyl derivative of rutin, are used in Europe, Mexico and other Latin American countries for the treatment of such venous disorders as varicose veins and hemorrhoids. The generic name for these formulations is troxerutin. Troxerutin has been widely used in Europe since the mid-1960s.

Evidence

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Dosing

The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

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Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

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Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.