Image for Apple cider vinegar
Apple cider vinegar

Synonyms/Common Names/Related Substances:

  • Acetic acid, ACV, apple cider vinegar plus honey cocktail, apple cider vinegar tablets, cider vinegar, Malus sylvestris, Mother Nature's perfect food.
  • Combination product examples: Bragg Organic Raw Apple Cider Vinegar, Cider Vinegar Diet Formula capsules (apple cider vinegar powder 250mg, grapefruit fiber 15mg, kelp 37mg, lecithin 100mg, vitamin B6 3.5mg, chromium 100mcg, glucomannan fiber 50mg), Doctor's Trust® Apple Cider Plus Formula tablets (apple cider vinegar powder 100mg, grapefruit pectin 100mg, bromelain 200mg), Doctor's Trust® Apple Cider Vinegar tablets (apple cider vinegar 250mg and 500mg), Natural Brand™ Apple Cider Complete (B6 2mg, iodine 50mcg, lecithin 100mg, cayenne 100mg, ginger 100mg, hydroxycitric acid 50mg), Now® Apple Cider Vinegar HP capsules (apple cider vinegar powder 900mg), Original Apple Cider Diet Vin (vitamin B6 25mg, chromium 200mcg, apple cider vinegar 900mg, apple pectin 150mg, Gymnema sylvestre leaf 600mg), Unflavored Apple Cider Vinegar Tablets (apple cider vinegar 500mg, 150mg herbal complex [oat bran fiber, beet root, couch grass, buchu leaves, uva ursi leaves, juniper berries, citrus pectin, hydrangea root, corn silk, apple pectin]), Swanson Best® Weight-Control Fat Burner (vitamin B6 50mg, chromium 200mcg, hydroxycitric acid 500mg, choline bitartrate FCC 500mg, inositol FCC 250mg, L-methionine 200mg, cider vinegar powder 100mg, grapefruit powder 100mg, lecithin 100mg, taurine 100mg), Swanson Best® Weight-Control Sleep A-Weigh (carbohydrate 2g, vitamin C 200mg, vitamin B6 10mg, calcium 38mg, hydrolyzed collagen, Aloe vera, apple cider vinegar, calcium pyruvate, L-carnitine, L-lysine, Tonalin® conjugated linoleic acid), TwinLab® Aunt Ida's Apple Cider Vinegar caps (apple cider vinegar, apple pulp fiber, vinegar).

Clinical Bottom Line/Effectiveness

Brief Background:

  • Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is prepared by pulverizing apples into a slurry of juice and pulp. Yeast and sugars are added to the slurry to begin the fermentation process. Yeast converts the sugars into alcohol, which is then oxidized by the Acetobacter species of bacteria to acetic acid. The sour taste of apple cider vinegar is from the acetic acid content, which also creates the acidity.
  • Apple cider vinegar has been used alone and in combination with other agents for numerous health conditions (1). For example, in combination with grapefruit and kelp, apple cider vinegar has been used orally for weight loss. Notably, during the diet "craze" of the 1970s, proponents suggested that a combination of apple cider, kelp, vitamin B6, and lecithin could "trick" the body's metabolism into burning fat faster. Claims of preventing viral and bacterial infections, as well as allergic reactions to pollen, dander, and dust stem from the proposed ability of apple cider vinegar to prevent alkalinization of the body. However, there is insufficient scientific evidence to form a clear conclusion about the efficacy or safety of apple cider vinegar for this or any other specific health condition.
  • There may be long-term risks associated with the acidity of apple cider vinegar, including hypokalemia (low blood potassium levels) and diminished bone mineral density (2).
  • Apple cider vinegar has been used as a flavoring agent and as a household sanitizer.

Dosing/Toxicology

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Precautions/Contraindications

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Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

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Mechanism of Action

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History

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Evidence Table

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Evidence Discussion

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Products Studied

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.