Image for Cinnamon ( spp.)
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.)

Synonyms/Common Names/Related Substances:

  • 1,2-Dimethoxy-4-(1-Z propenyl)benzene, 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene, 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)benzene (transanethole), 2-substituted 4-(3H)-quinazolinones, 3,4 dimethoxybenzaldehyde, 3-phenyl-2-propen-l-ol (cinnamyl alcohol), 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavan-3,4-diol, actinodaphnine, aitokaneli (Finnish), äkta kanel (Swedish), akupatri (Telugu), albero della cannella (Italian), allylbenzene, alpha-amyl cinnamaldehyde, alpha-bromo-4-chlorocinnamaldehyde, American cinnamon, Batavia cassia, Batavia cinnamon, benzyl benzoate, breyne, canela (Portuguese, Spanish), canela de la China (Spanish), caneleiro (Portuguese), canelero chino (Spanish), canelero de Ceilán (Spanish), canelheira da India (Portuguese - Brazil), cannelier de Chine (French), cannella (Italian), cannella del Ceylan (Italian), cannella della Cina (Italian), cannelle (French), cannelle de Ceylan (French), cannelle de Chine (French), cannelle de Cochinchine (French), cannellier casse (French), cannellier de Ceylan (French), cannellier de Chine (French), cassia (English, Italian), cássia (Portuguese), cassia bark, cassia cinnamon, cassia lignea, cassia rou gui, cássia-aromática (Portuguese), cassia-bark tree, catechins, cây que (Vietnamese), Ceylon cinnamon, ceyloni fahéj (Hungarian), ceyloninkaneli (Finnish), ceylonkanel (Swedish), ceylonski cimet (Croatian), Ceylonzimt (German), Ceylon-Zimt (German), Ceylonzimtbaum (German), chadana (Sanskrit), chek tum phka loeng (Khmer), Chinazimt (German), Chinese cassia, Chinese cinnamon, Chinesischer Zimt (German), Chinesischer Zimtbaum (German), cin tarçını (Turkish), cinbalansan, cinnakotolactone, cinnamal, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamate, cinnamic acid, cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamom-dhal chini, Cinnamomi cassiae, Cinnamomi cassiae cortex, Cinnamomi ceylanici cortex, Cinnamomi cortex, Cinnamomi flos, Cinnamomi osmophloeum, Cinnamomi ramulus, Cinnamomom, Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees, Cinnamomum burmannii, Cinnamomum cassia, Cinnamomum cassia Blume, Cinnamomum cassia J.Presl, Cinnamomum cinnamon, Cinnamomum loureiroi, Cinnamomum mairei Levl., Cinnamomum migao, Cinnamomum obtusifolium, Cinnamomum osmophloeum clones (A and B), Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh., Cinnamomum sieboldii, Cinnamomum sieboldii Meissn., Cinnamomum tamala, Cinnamomum tejpata, Cinnamomum verum, Cinnamomum verum J.Presl, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees, cinnamon, cinnamon bark, cinnamon bark essential oil, cinnamon bark oil, cinnamon cortex, cinnamon essential oil, cinnamon extract, cinnamon flower, cinnamon fruit stalks, cinnamon leaf, cinnamon leaf essential oil, cinnamon leaf oil, cinnamon twig, cinnamon water, cinnamophilin, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamyl anthranilate, coca (Sanskrit), cocam (Sanskrit), common cinnamon, condensed tannins, cortex Cinnamomi, cortex Cinnamomum, coumarin, cunamon cejloński (Polish), curruva pattai (Sinhalese), cynamon cejloński (Polish), cynamon chiński (Polish), cynamonowiec cejloński (Polish), cynamonowiec chiński (Polish), cynamonowiec wonny (tree) (Polish), daalachiini (Nepalese), daalachiinii (Nepalese), daalacinii (Hindi), daaracini (Bengali), daarciinii (Hindi), dal chini (Punjabi), dal ciinii (dalcheeni) (Urdu), dalachini (Marathi), dalachinni (Kannada), dalachinni chakke (Kannada), dalchini (Assamese, Bengali, Hindi), dar chini (Persian), dâr sînî (Arabic), dâr sînî ed dûn (Arabic), dâr sûss (Arabic), darchini (Bengali, Hindi), darusita (Sanskrit), delta-cadinene, 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(1-E-propenyl)benzene, (E)-2-cinnamaldehyde, E-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propenal, echter Ceylonzimt (German), echter Kanel (German), echter Zimt (German), (E)-cinnamaldehyde, epicatechins, erikkoloam (Malayalam), eugenol, fahéj (Hungarian), fahéjkasszia (Hungarian), falsa cannella (Italian), false cinnamon, gixin, gong gui (Chinese), guan gui (Chinese - Mandarin), gui (Chinese - Mandarin), gui pi (Chinese - Mandarin), gui xin (Chinese - Mandarin), gui zhi (Chinese), guipi (Chinese - Mandarin), guirou, guixin (Chinese - Mandarin), guizhi (Chinese), guizhi tang, gum, gun gwai (Chinese - Cantonese), gwai sam (Chinese - Cantonese), hiina kaneelipuu (Estonian), hman thin (Burmese), hminthin (Burmese), hushållskanel (Swedish), ilavangam (Malayalam, Tamil), isoobtusilactone A, isokotomolide A, isolinderanolide B, isotenuifolide A, jingo tongxiao, jih gwai (Chinese - Cantonese), jungui, kaempferol, kaneel (Danish), kaneelboom (Danish), kanel (Norwegian, Swedish), kanéla (Greek), kanela (Tagalog), kaneli (Finnish), kanelipuu (Finnish), kanell (Icelandic), karun (Malayalam), kashia (Japanese), kashia keihi (Japanese), kasia (Greek), kasiia (Bulgarian), kassia (Finnish, Greek, Hebrew, Norwegian, Swedish), kassiakanel (Danish, Swedish), kassiakaneli (Finnish), Kassie (as C. cassia) (German), kassie (Dutch), kasszia (Hungarian), kayu manis (Malay), kayu manis cina (Malay - Indonesia), keihi, keishi (Japanese), keishi-bukuryo-gan (Japanese), keychi (Korean), kiinankaneli (Finnish), kínai fahéj (Hungarian), kinamon (Hebrew), kinesisk kanel (Danish), kinesisk kaneltræ (Danish), kinnamomom (Greek), korichnik aromatnyi (Russian), korichnik kitaiskii (Russian), korichnik tsyelonskii (Russian), korichnoe derevo (Russian), korihnoe derevo (Russian), koritsa tseilonskaia (Bulgarian), kotomolide A, kotomolide B, kuei tsin (Chinese - Mandarin), kukhii taaj (Nepalese), kukjii taaj (Nepalese), kurundu (Sinhalese), kye pi (Korean), Lauraceae (family), laurier casse (French), lauro aromatico (Italian), lauro cassia (Italian), lavangamu (Telugu), lavangapatri (Kannada, Tamil), lavangapatta (Kannada, Telugu), lavangapattai (Malayalam, Tamil), lavangapatte (Kannada), lavangpatram (Malayalam), lignans, linalool, luteolin, Malabar leaf, Malabathrum, Malobathrum, mauh gwai (Chinese - Cantonese), mdalasini (Swahili), monoterpenes, mucilage, mu gui (Chinese - Mandarin), mugui (Chinese - Mandarin), N-acetyl-S-(1-phenyl-2-carboxy ethyl)cysteine, N-acetyl-S-(1-phenyl-3-hydroxypropyl)cysteine, nagkesar (Hindi), nhuc que (Vietnamese), ocotea quixos, Oleum Malabathri, o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, op choei chin (Thai - Bangkok), op choei thet (Thai - Bangkok), padang cassia, padang cinnamon, patrakam (Hindi), pattra (Sanskrit), pelargonidin, phenolic compounds, phenylpropanoids, pinene, polyphenol polymers, proanthocyanidins, procyanidin oligomers, propenylbenzenes, qassia (Hebrew), qin, qirfah (Arabic), quarfa (Arabic - Morocco), que dơn (Vietnamese), que hoi (Vietnamese), que quang (Vietnamese), que rành (Vietnamese), que Srilanca (Vietnamese), que thanh (Vietnamese), quercetin, ramulus Cinnamomi (Cinnamomum cassia Presl), resin, rou gui (Chinese), rou gui pi (Chinese - Mandarin), rougui (Chinese - Mandarin), sa chwang (sa chouang) (Laotian), Saigon cassia, Saigon cinnamon, saliha (Turkish), salîkhah (Arabic), scortisoara (Romanian), secobutanolide, secokotomolide A, secosubamolide A, secotenuifolide A, seiron Nikkei (Japanese), sequiterpenes (pinene), sesamin, Seychelles cinnamon, seylan tarçini (Turkish), shinamon (Japanese), sil long gye pi (Korean), skořice (Czech), skořice cejlonská (Czech), skořice čínská (Czech), Sri Lanka cinnamon, sthula tvak (Sanskrit), subamolide A, subamolide B, subamolide C, subamolide D, subamolide E, sweet wood, taj (Sanskrit), talouskaneli (Finnish), tamaala patra (Sanskrit), tamaalaka (Sanskrit), tarçın ağacı (Turkish), teipat (Urdu), tenuifolide A, tenuifolide B, tenuifolin, thi ho thit kya bo (Burmese), thit kya bo (Burmese), thit-ja boh guak (Burmese), tonkin Nikkei (Japanese), transanethole, trans-cinnamaldehyde, trans-cinnamic acid, trans-cinnamic alcohol, true cinnamon, tseiloni kaneelipuu (Estonian), tseilonska kanela (Bulgarian), tseilonskaia koritsa (Bulgarian), tuj (Gujarati), tvak (Sanskrit), tvakpatrakka (Sanskrit), utkata (Sanskrit), valse kaneel (Dutch), varaangam (Hindi), vayana (Malayalam), xi lan rou gui (Chinese), xiao-jian-zhong, xiao-jian-zhong-tang, yin xiang, yu gui (Chinese - Mandarin), yuhk gwai (Chinese - Cantonese), yuk gwai (Chinese - Cantonese), zi gui (Chinese - Mandarin), Zimt (German), Zimtbaum, (German), Zimtblüte (German), Zimtblüten (German), Zimtcassie (as C. cassia) (German), Zimtrinde (German), Zimtrindle (German).
  • Note: The foreign language equivalents above are derived predominantly from the Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees, Cinnamomum verum J.Presl, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum species.
  • Traditional Chinese medicine formula examples: Bai Hu Jia Gui Zhi Tang, Da Qing Long Tang, Dang Gui Si Ni Tang, Ge Gen Tang, Gui Zhi, Gui Zhi Fu Ling Wan, Gui Zhi Tang, Ling Gui Zhu Gan Tang, Ma Huang Tang, Tao He Cheng Qi Tang, Tan Yin, Tongbiling, Yi Qi Tong Lin Chingji, Zhi Shen.
  • Note: This monograph focuses on cinnamon varieties that are edible and does not include Cinnamomum camphora, or the camphor tree, which may be lethal to humans in large doses, or Cinnamomum kotoense, which is an ornamental species.

Clinical Bottom Line/Effectiveness

Brief Background:

  • Cinnamon has been used as a spice for centuries by countless cultural groups around the world. Individuals have also used cinnamon for its purported healing properties. It was traditionally used mainly as a stomachic and carminative for gastrointestinal complaints and is still used for these conditions today (1). The bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and C. cassia (cinnamon bark) is used as a spice. These two species are the only approved medicinal herbs of the genus Cinnamomum.
  • At this time, high-quality human trials supporting the efficacy of cinnamon for any human indication are lacking. However, in vitro and in vivo research has discovered new potential properties of several cinnamon species.
  • The treatment of type 2 diabetes seems to be the most promising field of research for cinnamon (2;3;4;5;6). Although there are conflicting results from randomized studies, the results from in vitro and animal studies indicate significant hypoglycemic effects. Cinnamon was shown to be highly effective in improving glucose and insulin metabolism. Researchers have recommended more studies for comparing the effectiveness of cinnamon in lowering A1C (7).
  • Furthermore, due to the various potential effects of cinnamon and its constituents, including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant properties, it may prove effective in the supportive treatment of conditions such as cancer or severe viral infections.

Dosing/Toxicology

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Precautions/Contraindications

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Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

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Mechanism of Action

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History

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Evidence Table

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Evidence Discussion

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Products Studied

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.