Image for Clove () and clove oil(eugenol)
Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and clove oil(eugenol)

Synonyms/Common Names/Related Substances:

  • 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-phenol, beta-caryophyllene, Caryophylli atheroleum, Caryophylli flos, caryophyllum, caryophyllus, Caryophyllus aromaticus, cengke (Indonesian), cengkeh (Indonesian), chiodo di garofano (Italian), choji (Japanese), chor boghbojh (Armenian), chor poghpoch (Armenian), cinnamon nails, clau (Catalan), clavo (Spanish), clavo de olor (Spanish), clavos, clou de girofle (French), clovas de comer (Tagalog), clove bud, clove bud oil, clove cigarettes, clove essential oil, clove leaf, clove oil, craveiro da Índia (Portuguese), cravina de Túnis (Portuguese), cravinho, cravo (Portuguese), cravo da Índia (Portuguese), cravoária (Portuguese), cravo das molucas (Portuguese - Brazil), cravo de cabecinha (Portuguese), cravo de doce (Portuguese - Brazil), cuisoare, ding heung (Chinese), ding xiang (Chinese), dinh huong (Vietnamese), dok chan (Laotian), dried clove, Eugenia aromatica, Eugenia bud, Eugenia caryophyllata, Eugenia caryophyllus, eugenol, eugenole, flores Caryophylli, gahn plu, garifalo (Greek), garifallo (Greek), garifano (Greek), garn ploo (Thai), Gewürznelke (German), Gewürznelken (German), Gewürznelken Nägelein (German), Gewürznelkenbaum (German), giroffle (French), giroflier (French), goździk korzenny (Polish), gozdziki (Polish), goździków korzenny (Polish), graambu, ground clove, gvazdikelia, gvozdika (Russian), habahan (Arabic), harilik nelgipuu (Estonian), hřebíčkovec kořenný (Czech), hřebíčkovec vonný (Czech), iltze kanela, isoeugenol, jeonghyang (Korean), jeonghyang namu, jonghyang, kaan phlûu (Thai), kabsh qarunfil (Arabic), kala (Pashto), kalmpir, kan phou (Laotian), kan phu (Laotian), karabu nati (Sinhalese), karafuu (Swahili), karamfil (Bulgarian), karanfil (Turkish), kariofilla (Greek), kariofilo (Esperanto), khan pluu (Khmer), khlam puu (Khmer), klabong pako (Tagalog), klincek (Slovak), klincic, klincki, krambu (Tamil), kreteks, krinfud (Amharic), kruidnagel (Dutch), kruidnagelboom (Dutch), krustnaglinas (Latvian), kryddnejlikor (Swedish), kryddernellik (Norwegian), kryddernellike (Danish), kryddernelliketræ (Danish), kryddnejlika (Swedish), kullobu (Korean), kurobu (Japanese), kuroobu (Japanese), kvapnusis gvazdikmedis (Lithuanian), labanga (Oriya), labango (Bengali), laung (Hindi, Urdu), lavang (Marathi), lavanga (Hindi, Sanskrit), lavangalu (Telugu), lavangamu (Telugu), lay hnyin (Burmese), ley nyim bwint (Burmese), lwaang (Nepalese), mausteneilikka (Finnish), mikhak (Farsi), mikhaki (Georgian), mixaki (Georgian), moschokarfi (Greek), mu ding xiang (Chinese), Myrtaceae (family), myrte soort (Dutch), Nägelein (German), nageljnove zbice, nagri (Sranan), Negelken (German), negull (Icelandic), neilikka (Finnish), nejlikor (Swedish), Nelke (German), nellik (Norwegian), nellike (Danish), oil of clove, oleum caryophylli, pentogen (clove oil), qalampir (Uzbek), qaranful (Arabic), rosa da Índia (Portuguese), Shitei-To, shouji (Japanese), shriisanjnan (Sanskrit), sitsigiui gvozdichnyi (Russian), Syzigium aromaricum (L) Merr. and Perry., szegfűszeg(fa) (Hungarian), Tiger Balm™ Red, tropical myrtle, tsiporen (Hebrew), tziporen (Hebrew).
  • Combination product examples: Dent-Zel-Ite® toothache relief drops, Red Cross Toothache Medication®; Tiger Balm™ Red (5% cassia oil plus 5% clove oil); Shitei-To (STT) (Shitei (SI, Kaki Calyx; calyx of Diospyros kaki L. f.), Shokyo (SK, Zingiberis Rhizoma; rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Choji (CJ, Caryophylli flos; flowerbud of Syzygium aromaticum [L.] Merrill et Perry), Olbas Oil (menthol 4.1% and oil of cajuput 18.5%, clove 0.1%, eucalyptus 35.5%, juniper berry 2.7%, peppermint 35.5%, and wintergreen oil (methyl salicylate) 3.7%), Buddha Nose Immune Booster Spray and Salve (lemon, clove, cinnamon, and ravensara essential oils), DHC-1 (Bacopa monniera, Emblica officinalis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Mangifera indica, and Syzygium aromaticum).
  • Dental sealants containing eugenol: Kerr Pulp Canal Sealer, Roth's 801, Eugenol-based IRM (Intermediate Restorative Material), Tifell (formocresol-eugenol), Pulp Canal Sealer, EndoFill.
  • Cement/temporary cement/periodontal dressings for dental work: ZOE®/SSW, Superbite, Canals, Endomethansone, N2, Endofill, Intrafill, Tubli-Seal, Kerr, periodontal dressings, Wondrpak® and Nobetec®, temporary cement Temp bond, Provy, TempCem, Eugedain, Showa Yakuhin Kakou, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT.
  • Further content available for subscribers only.

Clinical Bottom Line/Effectiveness

Brief Background:

  • Clove is widely cultivated in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Tanzania, and Brazil. It is used in limited amounts in food products, and is used as a fragrance, flavoring agent, antiseptic, and local anesthetic. Clinical trials assessing clove as a monotherapy are limited; however, the expert panel German Commission E has approved the use of clove as a topical antiseptic and anesthetic. Other uses for clove, such as for the treatment of premature ejaculation, dry socket, dental pain and hygiene, mosquito repellant, and fever, have limited high quality human clinical evidence.
  • Clove is sometimes added to tobacco in cigarettes, and clove cigarettes ("kreteks") typically contain 60% tobacco and 40% ground cloves. In a clinical trial, clove odor was associated with the Christmas season (1).
  • Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity have been noted in case reports of ingestion of clove oil (2;3;4).

Dosing/Toxicology

  • Content available for subscribers only.

Precautions/Contraindications

  • Content available for subscribers only.

Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

  • Content available for subscribers only.

Mechanism of Action

  • Content available for subscribers only.

History

  • Content available for subscribers only.

Evidence Table

  • Content available for subscribers only.

Evidence Discussion

  • Content available for subscribers only.

Products Studied

  • Content available for subscribers only.

Author Information

  • Content available for subscribers only.

References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

  • Content available for subscribers only.
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.