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Chromogenic in situ hybridization

Related Terms

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Background

  • Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is a method that researchers may use to determine whether a specific part of a chromosome is present in a cell. Chromosomes are located in a compartment of the cell called the nucleus and are composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and proteins. Human cells contain 46 chromosomes, 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes, and each chromosome has hundreds of genes. Genes contain the instructions for making the proteins that perform all of the functions in the human body, such as producing energy.
  • To perform CISH, researchers may first identify a specific region to study, for example, a region that contains a certain gene of interest. They then generate a probe, which is a sequence of DNA that can recognize and bind to the chromosomal region of interest. In CISH, the probes are designed to generate a colored stain, so that if a chromosomal region of interest is present in a cell, researchers will be able to see the stain by looking at a cellular sample under the microscope.
  • In some diseases, such as cancer, genetic mutations occur that can cause part of a DNA sequence in the chromosome to be deleted, repeated, or reversed in orientation. By looking for differences in how chromosomes from different cells stain with a probe, researchers may be able to observe these changes under the microscope and learn more about the genetic mutations that cause a particular disease.

Methods

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Research

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Implications

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Limitations

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Safety

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Future Research

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.