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CYP2D6 and CYP1A2*1F Genotyping

Related Terms

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Background

  • The term "metabolism" refers to the way the human body interacts with drugs, food, and any other ingested substance. Metabolism involves absorption in the digestive tract, processing in the liver and other organs, action of the substance within the cells, and elimination in the urine or stool. Pharmacokinetics is the study of how a drug is absorbed, processed, delivered to its target, and removed from the body. Pharmacodynamics is the study of how a drug interacts with its target. This target may be a protein within the cell, genetic material within the cell, or something outside of the cell.
  • Genes are molecules within the cells that provide instructions for making all of the proteins in the body. While about 99.9% of genetic material is the same among individuals, each individual has slightly different genes, called alleles. Different alleles may produce proteins that have stronger or weaker levels of activity compared with other alleles.
  • Pharmacogenomics is the study of how an individual's genetic makeup affects his or her response to drugs. Some patients respond differently to drugs from others. For instance, one patient may require a very high dose of a certain medication to have an effect, while another patient may have major side effects from a small dose. Pharmacogenomics includes the study of both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
  • Drug and nutrient metabolism: The metabolism of drugs and nutrients occurs primarily in the liver. One family of proteins, called cytochrome P450, is responsible for metabolizing most drugs. When these proteins metabolize drugs, they break them down into different molecules or attach them to other proteins. In most cases, this results in the drug being inactivated.
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Methods

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Research

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Implications

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Limitations

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Safety

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Future Research

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.