Image for Genotyping
Genotyping

Related Terms

  • Content available for subscribers only.

Background

  • The genotype of an individual is that individual's deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence, while genotyping is the method by which one's DNA sequence is determined. Often, genotyping is not used to determine the entire DNA sequence of an individual, but rather is used to determine the DNA sequence of one or a few genes or regions of DNA.
  • DNA is located in a compartment of the cell called the nucleus and is packaged in structures called chromosomes. Human cells contain 46 chromosomes, and each chromosome has hundreds of genes. Genes contain the instructions for making the proteins that perform all the functions in the human body. Chromosomes also contain many other regulatory sequences that control how much of a gene will be made, when it will be made, and where in the body it will be made.
  • DNA contains four different chemical compounds called nucleotide bases: cytosine, thymine, guanine, and adenine. In any given person, these nucleotide bases are found in a particular order along the chromosomes, and it is the order of these nucleotide bases that stores information for making genes. Even though the DNA sequences of different people are similar (on average, DNA is about 99.9% identical between two people), differences in DNA between people are important. Differences in DNA may be caused by genetic changes, called mutations. When genotyping individuals, these differences in DNA may be identified.
  • Researchers may use several different methods to determine an individual's genotype, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and DNA microarray technology. PCR is a method that uses proteins called enzymes to amplify and detect genes. DNA microarrays are small chips called probes that have many short pieces of DNA attached, and which are able to detect a wide variety of genes in a sample. DNA sequencing is a technique researchers may use in order to determine the sequence of bases along a chromosome or in a gene.
  • Further content available for subscribers only.

Methods

  • Content available for subscribers only.

Research

  • Content available for subscribers only.

Implications

  • Content available for subscribers only.

Limitations

  • Content available for subscribers only.

Safety

  • Content available for subscribers only.

Future Research

  • Content available for subscribers only.

Author Information

  • Content available for subscribers only.

References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

  • Content available for subscribers only.
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.