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Protein Truncation Test (PTT)

Related Terms

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Background

  • Genes, which are made of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), are considered the building blocks of life because they provide instructions for cells in the body. They are located inside cells and they control an organism's development and function by instructing cells to make new molecules (usually proteins). Genes are passed down from parents to their offspring (children).
  • DNA is a long thread-like (double-helix) molecule made up of large numbers of nucleotides. The sequence of bases in DNA serves as the carrier of genetic (hereditary) information. Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and are made of nitrogen bases, sugars, and phosphate. Nitrogen bases are of two types: purines, such as adenine (A) and guanine (G), and pyrimidines, such as cytosine (C) and thymine (T). Long strands of nucleotides form nucleic acids. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid that helps in protein synthesis, which is important for the growth and maintenance of the body. RNA is formed under the direction of DNA and both help to form amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein.
  • A mutation is a change in the sequence of base pairs in the DNA that makes up a gene. "Base pairs" refers to a pair of nitrogen bases such as adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine in DNA and adenine-uracil and guanine-cytosine in RNA. A nonsense mutation may result in a truncated and, in many cases, nonfunctional protein. Some mutations may influence the risk of developing certain disorders/diseases. For example, mutations on the BRCA1/BRCA2 genes are associated with the development of breast and ovarian cancers.
  • Protein translation is a process by which the genetic code carried by messenger RNA (mRNA) directs the production of proteins from amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. This process is also known as RNA translation. mRNA is a form of RNA that carries information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes within the cytoplasm of the cell, which are the sites of protein synthesis.
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Methods

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Research

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Implications

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Limitations

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Safety

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Future Research

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.