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Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Synonyms/Common Names/Related Substances:

  • 1-(4'-Hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-nonadecen-1-one, 1-(4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxydecane, 1,7-bis-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-5-acetoxyheptane, 1,7-bis-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-5-methoxyheptan-3-one, 1-dehydrogingerdione, 1-hydroxy-[6]-paradol, 3-acetoxy-[4]-gingerdiol, 3-acetoxydihydro-[6]-paradol methyl ether, [4]-gingerdiol, 5-acetoxy-3-deoxy-[6]-gingerol, 5-acetoxy-[6]-gingerdiol, 5-methoxy-[n]-gingerols, 5-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decane, 6-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-nonyl-2-hydroxytetrahydropyran, 6-dehydro-[6]-gingerol, 6-dehydrogingerdione, 6-gingerdiol, 6-gingerol, 6-gingesulfonic acid, 6-hydroxy-[n]-shogaol, [6]-isoshogaol, 6-paradol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, 8-shogaol, 10-gingerol, 10-shogaol, aadaa (Assamese, Bengali), acetoxy-3-dihydrodemethoxy-[6]-shogaol, adarak (Hindi), adrak (Urdu), adraka (Urdu), adruka (Hindi), aduvaa (Nepalese), African ginger, allaama (Telugu), allaamu (Telugu), alpha-copaene, alpha-curcumene, alpha-phellandrene, alpha-zingiberene, Amomum zingiber L., ar-curcumene, beta-bisabolene, beta-pinene, beta-sesquiphellandrene, bisabolene, black ginger, bordia, calcium, cây gung (Vietnamese), Chayenne ginger, cochin ginger, curcumene, curcumin, diacetoxy-[8]-gingerdiol, diarylheptanoids, EV.EXT 35, galanolactone, gan jiang (Chinese), gember (Dutch), gengibre (Portuguese), geranial, geranyl 6-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, geranyl 6-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, geranyl 6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (+)-germacrene D synthase, gingembre (French), ginger BP, ginger oil, ginger oleoresin, ginger power BP, ginger proteases, ginger root, ginger trips, gingerall, gingerdione, gingerglycolipid A, gingerglycolipid B, gingerglycolipid C, gingerly, gingerols, gingesulfonic acid, green ginger, g?ng (Vietnamese), gyömbér (Hungarian), halia (Malay), imber (Slovenian), Inbwer (German), ingefaer (Danish, Norwegian), ingefära (Swedish), inguru (Sinhalese), Ingwer (German), inji (Tamil), inkivääri (Finnish), iron, jahe (Malay - Indonesia, Sundanese), jahya (Malay - Bali), Jamaica ginger, jamveel (Persian), jengibre (Spanish), jhai (Madurese), jiang (Chinese), kankyo, khing (Laotian, Thai), lahya (Malay - Bali), methyl [4]-shogaol, methyl [6]-isogingerol, methyl [8]-paradol, methyl diacetoxy-[8]-gingerdiol, Myanmar ginseng, oleoresins, race ginger, rhizoma Zingeberis, (R)-linalool, saeng gang (Korean), sheng jiang (Chinese), shogaol, shogasulfonic acid, shokyo (Japanese), shouga (Japanese), shukku (Tamil), sindhi (Hindi), sonth (Hindi), sonthi (Telugu), tangawizi (Swahili), terpinolene, vanillyl ketones, vanillylacetone, verma, Z. officinale Roscoe, Z. zerumbet Smith, zanjabil (Persian), zencebil (Turkish), zencefil (Turkish), zentzephil (Turkish), zenzero (Italian), zenzevero (Italian), zerzero, zingerone, zingibain, Zingiberaceae, zingiberene, Zingiber blancoi Massk, Zingiber capitatum, Zingibermajus Rumph., Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiber zerumbet Smith, Zingiberis rhizome, Zintona® EC.
  • Select combination products: Dai-kenchu-to/Daikenchuto (DKT, TJ-100; traditional Japanese herbal medicine composed of ginger rhizome, ginseng root, malt sugar, and zanthoxylum fruit), EV.EXT 77 (combination of Zingiber officinale and Alpinia galanga), GelStat Migraine® (combination of ginger and feverfew), Goshuyuto (Evodiae fructus, Zingiberis rhizoma, Zizyphi fructus, and Ginseng radix), Hochu-ekki-to (combination of astragalus root, licorice (liquorice), jujube, ginseng, white Atractylodes rhizome, fresh ginger, and Chinese angelica root), Keishi-ka-kei-to (a traditional Chinese herbal medicine composed of a mixture of crude extracts from five medicinal plants; Cinnamomi cortex, Paeoniae radix, Zizyphi fructus, Zingiberis rhizome, and Glycyrrhizae radix), KSS formula (traditional folk remedy composed of Zingiber officinale rhizome, citrus tangerine Hort. et Tanaka pith, and brown sugar), LipiGesic™ M (combination of ginger and feverfew) (1), NT (dietary herbal supplement made from ginger, rhubarb, astragalus, red sage, and turmeric, and gallic acid), sho-saiko-to-ka-kikyo-sekko (TJ-109; folk medicine composed of Bupleurum root, Glycyrrhiza root, Pinellia tuber, Platycodon root, Scutellaria root, gypsum, jujube fruit, ginseng root, and ginger rhizome), Si-ni-tang (traditional Chinese medicine composed of Zingiber officinale, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and Aconitum carmichaeli), Sudantha (herbal toothpaste composed of Zingiber officinale Roscoe., Acacia chundra Willd, Adhatoda vasica Nees., Mimusops elengi L., Piper nigrum L., Pongamia pinnata L. Pirerre, Quercus infectoria Olivier., Syzygium aromaticum L., and Terminalia chebula Retz), Tongyan spray (traditional Chinese medicine spray composed of ginger and Clematis radix), Xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (13-herb formulation containing ginger), Zhengchaihu Yin (combination of six traditional Chinese medicines: Chinese thorowax, orange peel, root of fangfeng, Chinese herbaceous peony, licorice root, and ginger), Zinopin® (combination of Pycnogenol® and standardized ginger root extract), Zintona EC®.
  • Note: Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) is the official drug mentioned in various pharmacopoeias (Chinese, Japanese, British, Indian, etc.). Other Zingiber species such as Zingiber zerumbet, Zingiber cassumunar, Zingiber capitatum, Zingiber blancoi, and Zingiber majus also share some common medicinal properties and uses with Zingiber officinale but are very different species from the official ginger, with different chemical constituents.

Clinical Bottom Line/Effectiveness

Brief Background:

  • The rhizomes and stems of ginger have assumed significant roles in Chinese, Japanese, and Indian medicine since the 1500s. The oleoresin of ginger is often contained in digestive, antitussive, antiflatulent, laxative, and antacid compounds.
  • There is supportive evidence from several randomized controlled trials that ginger reduces the severity and duration of nausea or emesis during pregnancy (2;3;4;5;6;7;8;9;10;11;12;13;14). Ginger's effects on other types of nausea or emesis, such as chemotherapy-induced (15;16;17;18;19), postoperative nausea, or motion sickness remain undetermined (20;21). Zinopin, made of Pycnogenol® and standardized ginger root extract (SGRE), has been suggested as a possible treatment for motion sickness (22). However, a clinical trial reported that patients could not distinguish ginger from placebo (23).
  • Ginger is used orally, topically, and intramuscularly for a wide array of other conditions, without clear scientific evidence of benefit.
  • The most frequent side effects associated with ginger use are gastrointestinal upset, heartburn, gas, and bloating. Ginger may inhibit platelet aggregation or decrease platelet thromboxane production, thus theoretically increasing bleeding risk.

Dosing/Toxicology

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Precautions/Contraindications

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Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

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Mechanism of Action

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History

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Evidence Table

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Evidence Discussion

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Products Studied

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.