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Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba)

Synonyms/Common Names/Related Substances:

  • 6-Hydroxykynurenic acid, adiantifolia, AKL1, arbre aux quarante écus (French), ArginMax®, bai guo ye, baiguo, bilobalide, BioGinkgo®, Blackmores Ginkgo Brahmi (Bacopa monniera), BN-52063, duck foot tree, EGb, EGb 761®, Elefantenohr (German), eun-haeng (Korean), Fächerblattbaum (German), flavone glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, fossil tree, GBE, GBE 24, GBX, Geriaforce® tincture, ginan, ginaton, Gincosan®, Ginexin Remind®, gingko, Gingopret®, Ginkai®, Ginkgo balm, Ginkgo biloba Blätter (German), Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides (GBEP), Ginkgo bilba extract, Ginkgo biloba L. extracts, Ginkgo biloba Linné (form. Salisburia adiantifolia Sm.), Ginkgo flavone glycosides, Ginkgo folium, Ginkgo Go®, Ginkgo leaf extract, Ginkgo Phytosome®, Ginkgo Powder®, Ginko T.D.™, Ginkgoaceae (family), Ginkgobene®, Ginkgoblätter (German), Ginkgogink, Ginkgold®, Ginkgolic acids, Ginkgolides, Ginkgopower, Ginkopur®, ginkyo, gin-nan (Japanese), GK 501, glucaric acid, glucose, Herbal vX®, icho (Japanese), isorhamnetin, ityo, Japanbaum (German), Japanese silver apricot, kaempferol, Kaveri®, kew tree, kung sun shu, LI 1370, maidenhair tree, noyer du Japon (French), organic acids, Oriental plum tree, pei kuo, pei-wen, proanthocyanidins, Pterophyllus, Pterophyllus salisburiensis, quercetin, rhamnose, Rö Kan®, Rökan, Rokan, salisburia, Salisburia adiantifolia, Salisburia macrophylla, Seredin, Seredrin®, silver apricot, sophium, Tanakan®, tanakene, tebofortan, Tebonin®, tempeltrae, temple balm, terpenelactones, terpenoids, tramisal, valverde, vasan, vital, ya chio, yin-guo, yin-hsing (Chinese).
  • Combination products: Rhodiola-Ginkgo Capsule (RGC), ArginMax® (extracts of Ginkgo, ginseng, damiana, L-arginine, multivitamins, and minerals), Herbal vX® (Muira puama and Ginkgo), Gincosan® (Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng).

Clinical Bottom Line/Effectiveness

Brief Background:

  • According to secondary sources, Ginkgo biloba has been used medicinally for thousands of years and is one of the top-selling herbs in the United States.
  • Ginkgo is used for the treatment of numerous conditions, many of which are under scientific investigation (1). Available evidence demonstrates Ginkgo's efficacy in the management of dementia and anxiety, as an adjunct in schizophrenia, and for "cerebral insufficiency" (a syndrome thought to be secondary to atherosclerotic disease, characterized by impaired concentration, confusion, decreased physical performance, fatigue, headache, dizziness, depression, and anxiety).
  • Evidence for other uses is either lacking or mixed. Further research is needed for all uses of Ginkgo.
  • Although Ginkgo is generally well tolerated, it should be used cautiously in patients on anticoagulant therapy and those with known coagulopathy, or prior to some surgical or dental procedures, due to multiple case reports of bleeding (2;3;4;5;6;7;8;9;10;11;12;13;14;15;16;17;18;19;20;21;22).

Dosing/Toxicology

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Precautions/Contraindications

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Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

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Mechanism of Action

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History

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Evidence Table

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Evidence Discussion

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Products Studied

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.