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Grape (Vitis spp.)

Synonyms/Common Names/Related Substances:

  • 1,2-Di-O-acyl-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl glycerols, 6'-O-acyldaucosterols, ActiVin®, activin, alpha-ylangene, amino acids, ampelopcin A, anthocyanins, astringin, betulin, betulinic acid, bioflavinols, black grape extract, black grape raisins, Bordeaux wine grape seed, cabernet franc, cabernet gernischt, cabernet sauvignon, caffeic acid, calzin, Carlos, catechin, chardonnay, Chilean black grape, chlorogenic acid, condensed tannins, coumaric acid, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyaniding, daucosterol, delphinidin, drue kerne, emperor, Endotelon®, enocianina (Italian), epicatechin, epicatechin 3-O-gallate, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epsilon-viniferin, (E)-resveratrol 3,5- O-beta-diglucosides, extrait de pepins de raisin (French), fatty acids, fatty aliphatic aldehydes, ferulic acid, fisetin, flame seedless, flav-3-ols, flavanones, flavonoids, fragola, French red grape extract, French red wine grapes, fruit extracts, FruitSmart® Concord grape extract, gallic acid, gallocatechin, grape, grape complex, grape fruit, grape fruit skin, grape homogenate extracts, grape juice, grape marc, grape molasses, grape poamce, grape pomace extracts, grape rinds, grape seed, grape seed extract (GSE), grape seed oil, grape skin, grape skin extract, grapes, grapeseed, grapeseed oil, Grapple®, GSPE, IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin, Indena's Grape Seed Standardized Extract®, iron, Isabel grape extract, Ison, kuromanin, leucoanthocyanidins, Leucoselect®-phytosome, malvidin, malvidin-3-acetylglucoside, malvidin 3-O-acetylglucoside, malvidin 3-O-acetylglucoside-4-vinylphenol, malvidin 3-O-acetylglucoside-pyruvate, malvidin 3-O-coumaroylglucoside-4-vinylphenol, malvidin 3-O-coumaroylglucoside-pyruvate, malvidin 3-O-glucoside, malvidin 3-O-glucoside-4-vinylphenol, malvidin 3-O-glucoside-pyruvate, Masquelier's Original OPCs®, melatonin, meoru, merlot, monomeric stilbenoid glucosides, morin, muscadine grape, muskat, myricetin, myrtillin, Nagano grape, Nagano purple grape, Niagara grape extract, Noble, nonhydrolyzable tannins, oenin, oleanolic acid, oleanolic aldehyde, oligostilbenes, oligomères procyanidoliques (French), oligomeric proanthocyanidins, OPCs, Panace-Vid 2000®, Parellada grape, pecmez, peomidin, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, peonidin-3-coumaryl-5-diglucoside, petite sirah, petunidin, petunidin-3-O-glucoside, phenylpropanoids, p-hydroxybenzoic acids, piceatannol, piceids, pine bark extract, polyphenol-based grape extract, polyphenolic grape extract, polyphenolic oligomers, polyphenols, Portuguese red grape skins, proanthocyanidin dimers, proanthocyanidins, procyanidin dimers, procyanidins, procyanidolic oligomers (PCOs), Pycnogenol®, quercetin, quercetin-3-arabinose, quercetin-3-rhamnose, raisins, red globe, red grape juice, red grape polyphenol extract, red grapes, red malaga, red muscadine grape, red wine polyphenols, Regrapex-R(R), resveratrol, resveratrol 3,4'-O-beta-diglucosides, resveratrol triacetate, Rkatsiteli grape oil, Rkatsiteli grapes, rutin, sauvignon blanc, serotonin, Shiraz grape berries, Shiraz red grape cultivar, sitosterols, sterols, stilbene, stilbenoid, strawberry grape, sultanas, Supreme, syringetin, syringetin 3-O-acetylglucoside, syringetin 3-O-glucoside, table grapes, tannins, tetrahydro-beta-carbolines, Thompson seedless, tocopherols, Traconol®, triterpenoid acids, Victoria grape, vineatrol, Vitaceae (family), Vitis amurensis, Vitis coignetiae, Vitis coignetiae Pulliat, vitis hybrid Bailey Alicant A, Vitis labrusca, Vitis × labruscana cv. Isabella, Vitis rotundifolia Michx., Vitis trifolia, Vitis vinifera L. cv. Grenache, Vitis vinifera L., Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay, Vitis vinifera L. cv. País, Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa, Vitis vinifera var. Nerello Mascalese, Vitis vinifera vars. Pinot Noir and Pinot Gris, vitisin A, vitisin B, white grape extract, wine grapes, (Z)-resveratrol 3,5- O-beta-diglucosides, (Z)-resveratrol 3,5,4'- O-beta-triglucoside.
  • Combination product examples: Cellasene (grape seed oil, Gingko biloba, sweet clover, seaweed, lecithin, and evening primrose oil); Imedeen Time Perfection (a mixture of BioMarine Complex, grape seed extract, tomato extract, and vitamin C); Seresis (carotenoids (beta-carotene and lycopene), vitamins C and E, selenium, and proanthocyanidins).
  • Note: Pycnogenol® is a patented nutrient supplement extracted from the bark of the European coastal pine Pinus maritima. Pycnogenol® consists of flavonoids, catechins, procyanidins, and phenolic acids, which are the same constituents found in grape seed, but not the same supplement. For more information on Pycnogenol®, see the individual monograph.
  • Wine is a fermented grape product and is discussed in more detail in a separate monograph.
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Clinical Bottom Line/Effectiveness

Brief Background:

  • Grape leaves, sap, seed, and fruit have purportedly been used medicinally since the time of the ancient Greeks. Preparations from different parts of the plant have been used historically to treat a variety of ailments, including skin and eye irritation, bleeding, varicose veins, diarrhea, cancer, and smallpox. Grape is the primary ingredient in the Ayurvedic herbal preparation Darakchasava, which has been used as a cardiotonic (1;2).
  • In the late 20th Century, the observation of an apparent cardioprotective effect of wine consumption in French men consuming a high-fat diet spurred interest in research into the possible role of wine and grape constituents, including the polyphenol resveratrol, in reducing cardiovascular disease risk. In this regard, grape has been shown to possess antioxidant, anticoagulant, and lipid-lowering effects both in vivo and in vitro. Preliminary evidence suggests that grape may be useful in the treatment of other conditions, including inflammation and cancer. However, additional high-quality clinical trials are needed before a strong conclusion can be made about the use of grape and grape-based products to treat any medical condition in humans. Additionally, some grape juices may be high in sugar content, which may lead to dental carries or obesity (3).
  • The antioxidant properties of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) have made products containing these extracts candidate therapies for a wide range of human diseases. Randomized controlled trials have documented the effectiveness of OPCs from grape seed in relieving symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency, injury-related extremity edema, edema, diabetic retinopathy, vascular fragility, and hypercholesterolemia. Grape seed extract has been used by integrative practitioners in Europe to treat venous insufficiency, promote wound healing, and alleviate inflammatory conditions, and as a "cardioprotective" therapy. OPCs appear to be well tolerated, with few side effects noted in the available literature. However, long-term studies assessing safety are lacking.

Dosing/Toxicology

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Precautions/Contraindications

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Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

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Mechanism of Action

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History

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Evidence Table

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Evidence Discussion

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Products Studied

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.