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Guggul (Commiphora mukul)

Synonyms/Common Names/Related Substances:

  • 3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-propanoic-acid-docosane-1-2-3-4-tetraol-1-yl-ester, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-propanoic-acid-eicosane-1-2-3-4-tetraol-1-yl-ester, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-propanoic-acid-heneicosane-1-2-3-4-tetraol-1-yl-ester, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-propanoic-acid-heptadecane-1-2-3-4-tetraol-1-yl-ester, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-propanoic-acid-hexadecane-1-2-3-4-tetraol-1-yl-ester, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-propanoic-acid-nonadecane-1-2-3-4-tetraol-1-yl-ester, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-propanoic-acid-octadecane-1-2-3-4-tetraol-1-yl-ester, 10-beta-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-one, 16-alpha-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one, 20-alpha-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one, 20(R)-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one, 20(S)-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one, allo-cembrol, allyl-cembrol, aluminum, amino acid, African myrrh, Arabian myrrh, Balsamodendrum mukul (Hook. ex Stocks), Balsamodendrum wightii Arn., bdellium (Greek, Hebrew, Latin), bdellium gum, bdellium tree, beta-sitosterol, Bhandari, Burseraceae (family), calcium, cembranoids, cembrenes (1-isopropyl-4,8,12-trimethyl-cyclotetradeca-2,4,7,11-tetraene), cembrene A (1-isopropenyl-4,8,12-trimethyl-cyclotetradeca-4,8,12-triene), cembrenol (1-isopropyl-4,8,12-trimethyl-cyclotetradeca-3,7,11-trienol), cholesterol, cis-guggulsterol, cis-guggulsterone, Commifora mukul, Commiphora erlangeriana, Commiphora mukul, Commiphora mukul (Hook. ex Stocks), Commiphora opobalsamum, Commiphora whightii, Commiphora wightii (Arn.), commiphora-mukul-keto-steroid, commiphora-mukul-steroid, commiphora-mukul-sterol, copper, E-guggulsterone, eicosane-1-2-3-4-tetrol, ellagic acid, false myrrh (as C. mukul), ferrulates, ferulic acid, flavanones, fraction A, guaijaverin, guggal, guggul (Hindi), guggul oleoresin, guggulipid, guggulipid C+, guggullignan-I, guggullignan-II, guggulsterol-III, guggulsterol-IV, guggulsterol-V, guggulsterol-VI, guggulsterone (4,17(20)-pregnadiene-3,16-dione), guggulu (Sanskrit), guglip, gugul, gugulimax, gugulipid, Gugulmax®, gum, gum guggul, gum guggulu, gum myrrh, hyperoside, Indian bdellium (as C. mukul), Indian bdellium tree (as C. mukul), Indian myrrh, iron, magnesium, minerals, mo ku er mo yao (as C. mukul) (Chinese), mo yao, mukulol (1-isopropyl-4,8,12-trimethyl- cyclotetradeca-3,7,11-trienol), myricyl-alcohol, myrrha, myrrhe des Indes (French), nonadecane-1-2-3-4-tetrol, octadecane-1-2-3-4-tetrol, oleogum resin, oleo gum resin, pelargonidin-3-5-di-O-glucoside, pelargonin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucurondine, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide, quercitrin, (+)-sesamin, sesquiterpenoids, sterols, sterones, trans-guggulsterone, verticillol (4,8,12,15,15-pentamethyl-bicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-3,7-dien-12-ol), Vitamin World® Select Herbals Standardized Extract Guggul Plex 340mg, Z-guggulsterone.
  • Select combination products: BHUx (Ayurvedic formulation composed of Commiphora mukul, Boswellia serrata, Termenalia arjuna, Semecarpus anacardium, and Strychnox nux vomica) (1), Sunthi guggulu, sunthi-guggulu (combination with ginger).
  • Note: Mirazid® is a commercial preparation of an extract of Commiphora molmol (myrrh) manufactured by Pharco Pharmaceuticals. It is marketed as an anthelmintic for the treatment of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis. This monograph is primarily concerned with Commiphora mukul and does not grade the safety or efficacy of Commiphora molmol; however, examples of current research using Mirazid® are listed (2;3;4;5;6;7;8;9).

Clinical Bottom Line/Effectiveness

Brief Background:

  • Guggul (gum guggul) is the resin produced by, as well as the common name for, Commiphora mukul (also known as Commiphora wightii), or the mukul myrrh tree. Guggulipid, which is extracted from guggul, contains the plant sterols and purported bioactive compounds guggulsterone E and guggulsterone Z. According to secondary sources, guggulsterones are a mixture of several compounds isolated from the plant sources.
  • Prior to 2003, the majority of scientific evidence suggested that guggulipid elicits significant reductions in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides, as well as elevations in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (10;11;12;13;14;15;16;17;18;19;20). Conflicting evidence exists regarding guggul's impact on cholesterol, however, with one study reporting slight increases in LDL (21). Several other more recent clinical trials have suggested that guggul may be efficacious for improving hyperlipidemia outcome measures. Further study is warranted.
  • While most well-known for its purported antihyperlipidemic effects, guggul has also been investigated for possible therapeutic benefit in a number of other indications and health conditions including acne, obesity, and both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Further research is, however, needed before any firm conclusions can be made in these areas.

Dosing/Toxicology

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Precautions/Contraindications

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Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

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Mechanism of Action

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History

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Evidence Table

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Evidence Discussion

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Products Studied

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.