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American pawpaw (Asimina triloba)
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.

Related Terms

  • Acetogenin, alkaloids, American paw paw, annomontacin, Annonaceae (family), Annonaceous acetogenins, Annona cherimola, Annona diversifolia, Annona glabra, Annona muricata, Annona palustris, Annona purpurea, Annona reticulata, Annona squamosa, Annona squamosa X A. cherimola, Annona triloba L., annonacin, annonacin-A, asimicin, asimin, Asimina incarna, Asimina longifolia, Asimina obovata, Asimina parviflora, Asimina pygmaea, Asimina reticulata, Asimina tetramera, Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal, Asimina X nashii, asiminacin, asiminecin, asiminocin, asimitrin, asimilobin, asitrocin, asitrilobins, atemoya, benzyltetrahydroisoquinolone alkaloids, biriba, Brazilian pawpaw, bullanin, bullatacin, bullatacinone, bullatetrocin, bulletin, Carica papaya, cherimoya, coumaroyltyramine, custard apple, Deeringothamnus rugelii, Deeringothamnus puchellus, Disepalum, dog banana, dwarf pawpaw, feruloyltyramine, flag pawpaw, flavonoids, gigantetrocinone, Goniothalanus, graviola, guanabana, Hoosier banana, ilama, Indiana banana, isoannonacin, murisolinone, nicotiflorine, octanoate, opossum pawpaw, Ozark banana, papaya, paw paw, Paw Paw Cell-Reg®, poor man's banana, prairie banana, Rollinia mucosa, rutin, soncoya, soursop, squamolone, sugar apple, sweetsop, syringaresinol, trilobacin, trilobalicin, Uvaria, West Virginia banana, xylomaticin, Xylopia.
  • Note: American pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is not a papaya and should not be confused with Carica papaya or Annona muricata (graviola) although the species have similar common names and may be called "pawpaw."

Background

  • American pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a fruiting tree native to North America. However, plantings of the tree can be found in Asia, Australia, and Europe. Pawpaw extract is made from the twigs of the tree.
  • In the 1980s and 1990s, researchers at Purdue University isolated compounds from pawpaw bark extracts. Many of these compounds were found to have cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines. Currently, there is a lack of available scientific evidence supporting the safety or effectiveness of pawpaw for any condition.

Evidence

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Dosing

The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

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Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

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Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.