Image for Clove () and clove oil(eugenol)
Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and clove oil(eugenol)
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.

Related Terms

  • 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-phenol, beta-caryophyllene, Caryophylli atheroleum, Caryophylli flos, caryophyllum, caryophyllus, Caryophyllus aromaticus, cengke (Indonesian), cengkeh (Indonesian), chiodo di garofano (Italian), choji (Japanese), chor boghbojh (Armenian), chor poghpoch (Armenian), cinnamon nails, clau (Catalan), clavo (Spanish), clavo de olor (Spanish), clavos, clou de girofle (French), clovas de comer (Tagalog), clove bud, clove bud oil, clove cigarettes, clove essential oil, clove leaf, clove oil, craveiro da Índia (Portuguese), cravina de Túnis (Portuguese), cravinho, cravo (Portuguese), cravo da Índia (Portuguese), cravoária (Portuguese), cravo das molucas (Portuguese - Brazil), cravo de cabecinha (Portuguese), cravo de doce (Portuguese - Brazil), cuisoare, ding heung (Chinese), ding xiang (Chinese), dinh huong (Vietnamese), dok chan (Laotian), dried clove, Eugenia aromatica, Eugenia bud, Eugenia caryophyllata, Eugenia caryophyllus, eugenol, eugenole, flores Caryophylli, gahn plu, garifalo (Greek), garifallo (Greek), garifano (Greek), garn ploo (Thai), Gewürznelke (German), Gewürznelken (German), Gewürznelken Nägelein (German), Gewürznelkenbaum (German), giroffle (French), giroflier (French), goździk korzenny (Polish), gozdziki (Polish), goździków korzenny (Polish), graambu, ground clove, gvazdikelia, gvozdika (Russian), habahan (Arabic), harilik nelgipuu (Estonian), hřebíčkovec kořenný (Czech), hřebíčkovec vonný (Czech), iltze kanela, isoeugenol, jeonghyang (Korean), jeonghyang namu, jonghyang, kaan phlûu (Thai), kabsh qarunfil (Arabic), kala (Pashto), kalmpir, kan phou (Laotian), kan phu (Laotian), karabu nati (Sinhalese), karafuu (Swahili), karamfil (Bulgarian), karanfil (Turkish), kariofilla (Greek), kariofilo (Esperanto), khan pluu (Khmer), khlam puu (Khmer), klabong pako (Tagalog), klincek (Slovak), klincic, klincki, krambu (Tamil), kreteks, krinfud (Amharic), kruidnagel (Dutch), kruidnagelboom (Dutch), krustnaglinas (Latvian), kryddnejlikor (Swedish), kryddernellik (Norwegian), kryddernellike (Danish), kryddernelliketræ (Danish), kryddnejlika (Swedish), kullobu (Korean), kurobu (Japanese), kuroobu (Japanese), kvapnusis gvazdikmedis (Lithuanian), labanga (Oriya), labango (Bengali), laung (Hindi, Urdu), lavang (Marathi), lavanga (Hindi, Sanskrit), lavangalu (Telugu), lavangamu (Telugu), lay hnyin (Burmese), ley nyim bwint (Burmese), lwaang (Nepalese), mausteneilikka (Finnish), mikhak (Farsi), mikhaki (Georgian), mixaki (Georgian), moschokarfi (Greek), mu ding xiang (Chinese), Myrtaceae (family), myrte soort (Dutch), Nägelein (German), nageljnove zbice, nagri (Sranan), Negelken (German), negull (Icelandic), neilikka (Finnish), nejlikor (Swedish), Nelke (German), nellik (Norwegian), nellike (Danish), oil of clove, oleum caryophylli, pentogen (clove oil), qalampir (Uzbek), qaranful (Arabic), rosa da Índia (Portuguese), Shitei-To, shouji (Japanese), shriisanjnan (Sanskrit), sitsigiui gvozdichnyi (Russian), Syzigium aromaricum (L) Merr. and Perry., szegfűszeg(fa) (Hungarian), Tiger Balm™ Red, tropical myrtle, tsiporen (Hebrew), tziporen (Hebrew).
  • Combination product examples: Dent-Zel-Ite® toothache relief drops, Red Cross Toothache Medication®; Tiger Balm™ Red (5% cassia oil plus 5% clove oil); Shitei-To (STT) (Shitei (SI, Kaki Calyx; calyx of Diospyros kaki L. f.), Shokyo (SK, Zingiberis Rhizoma; rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Choji (CJ, Caryophylli flos; flowerbud of Syzygium aromaticum [L.] Merrill et Perry), Olbas Oil (menthol 4.1% and oil of cajuput 18.5%, clove 0.1%, eucalyptus 35.5%, juniper berry 2.7%, peppermint 35.5%, and wintergreen oil (methyl salicylate) 3.7%), Buddha Nose Immune Booster Spray and Salve (lemon, clove, cinnamon, and ravensara essential oils), DHC-1 (Bacopa monniera, Emblica officinalis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Mangifera indica, and Syzygium aromaticum).
  • Dental sealants containing eugenol: Kerr Pulp Canal Sealer, Roth's 801, Eugenol-based IRM (Intermediate Restorative Material), Tifell (formocresol-eugenol), Pulp Canal Sealer, EndoFill.
  • Cement/temporary cement/periodontal dressings for dental work: ZOE®/SSW, Superbite, Canals, Endomethansone, N2, Endofill, Intrafill, Tubli-Seal, Kerr, periodontal dressings, Wondrpak® and Nobetec®, temporary cement Temp bond, Provy, TempCem, Eugedain, Showa Yakuhin Kakou, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT.
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  • Clove is widely grown in Indonesia, Sri-Lanka, Madagascar, Tanzania, and Brazil. It has been used to flavor food products. Clove has also been used to prevent infection and reduce pain, for which it has been approved by the expert panel German Commission E. Clove has been studied for other uses, such as premature ejaculation, fever, and dental pain, but more evidence is needed.
  • Clove is sometimes added to tobacco in cigarettes. Clove cigarettes ("kreteks") typically contain 60 percent tobacco and 40 percent ground cloves.
  • Clove oil has been associated with kidney and liver toxicity.


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The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

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The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

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Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

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Author Information

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Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.