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Kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa, Actinidia chinensis)
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.

Related Terms

  • 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, 2-(5-methyl-5-(oxiran-2-yl)-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)propan-1-ol, 2,6-dimethyl-6-hydroxyocta-2,7-dienal, 2,8-dimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridec-11-enyl)chroman-6-ol, 2alpha,3alpha,23-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, 2alpha,3alpha,23-tri-hydroxyursa-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid, 2alpha,3alpha,24-trihydroxyursa-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid, 2alpha,3alpha,24-trihydroxyursa-12-en-28-oic acid, 2alpha,3beta,19,23-tetrahydroxylolean-12-en-28-oic acid, 2alpha,3beta,19,23-tetra-hydroxyl-urs-12-en-oic acid, 2alpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyursa-12-en-28-oic acid, 2alpha-hydroxyoleanolic acid, 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, 2-cyclohexen-1-one, 2-ethylfuran, 2-hexanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methylbutanoate, 2-methylpropanoate, 2-(methylsulfanyl)acetate ester, 2-(methylsulfanyl)ethanol, 3beta-O-acetylursolic acid, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-2-butanone, 3-methyl-2-butenal, 3-methyl-3-buten-2-one, 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal, 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanol, 3-O-trans-p-coumaroyl actinidic acid, 3-penten-2-ol, 4-vinylguaiacol, 6-(2-pyrrolidinone-5-yl)-(-)-epicatechin, 8-(2-pyrrolidinone-5-yl)-(-)-epicatechin, 8-hydroxylinalool, 8-oxolinalool, 23-hydroxyursolic acid, abscisic acid, actinchinin, Actinidiaceae (family), Actinidia arguta, Actinidia arguta (Sieb. et Zucc.) ex Miq., Actinidia arguta (Sieb. et Zucc.) Planch. ex Miquel, Actinidia arguta var. giraldii, Actinidia chinensis 'Hort 16A', Actinidia chinensis L., Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis, Actinidia chinensis var. 'Hort 16A', Actinidia chinensis Planch., Actinidia coriacea, Actinidia deliciosa (A.Chev.) C.F.Liang et A.R.Ferguson var. deliciosa, Actinidia deliciosa [A.Chev.] C.F.Liang and A.R.Ferguson var. deliciosa 'Hayward', Actinidia deliciosa Chev. cv. Hayward, Actinidia deliciosa cv. Golden King, Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward, Actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa, Actinidia kolomikta, Actinidia macrosperma, Actinidia melanandra, Actinidia polygama, Actinidia purpurea, Actinidia sinensis Planch. (ASP), Actinidiaceae, actinidic acid, actinidin, alcohols, alkanals, alkanoic acids, alkanols, alkyl alkanoates, alpha-linolenic acid, alpha-tocopherol, anionic proteinase, anthocyanins, arabinogalactan proteins, aromatic compounds, ascorbate, ascorbic acid, asiatic acid, baby kiwi, benzenes, benzenoids, benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, beta-pheylethyl alcohol, beta-sitosterol, beta-steriol, betulinic acid, caffeic acid glucosyl derivatives, campesterol, carotenoids, catechin, China gooseberry, Chinese egg gooseberry, Chinese gooseberry, Chinese gooseberry fruit, chlorogenic acid, chlorophylls, cinnamic acid, confieryl alcohol, corosolic acid, coumarin glucosides, cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-xylo(1-2)-galactoside, cytokinins, delta-tocopherol, diethyl succinate, dihydroactinidiolide, dihydronepetalactone, dried kiwi, (E,E)-2,6-nonadienal, epicatechin, ergosta4,6,8,(14),22-tetraen-3-one, eriantic acid B, ethyl 3-(methylsulfanyl)prop-2-enoate, ethyl butanoate, eugenol, euscaphic acid, flavonoid glycosides, folic acid, forchlorfenuron, fructooligosaccharides, furaneol, galactoglucomannan, glycosyltransferases, goat peach, gold kiwi, green kiwi, hairy bush fruit, hairy pear, hardy kiwi, hex-E2-enal, hexanal, hexanoate, hexyl hexanoate, 'Hortgem Tahi' kiwifruit, hydrocarbons, indole-3-acetic acid, insoluble fiber, iridomyrmecin, isomeric flavonoids, isopentenyladenine, jyutping, ketones, kiivi, kissper, kivi, kiwellin, kiwi extract, kiwi fruit, kiwifruit berry, kiwiionside, lilac alcohol epoxides, lilac alcohols, lilac aldehydes, lutein, macaque peach, macaque pear, monoterpenes, n-butyl-O-beta-D-fruto-pyranoside, nonanal, norisoprenoids, octane, organic acids, oxalate, pectic polysaccharides, pectin methylesterase, pectin methylesterase inhibitor, phloe, phloe-zyactinase, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, phytoalexins, pinoresinol, pinyin, planchol A, planchol B, planchol C, planchol D, potassium, proanthocyanidin B-4, profilin, proteinase A 2, purple kiwi, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-[2G-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-6G-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl] glucopyranoside, raspberry ketone, red kiwi, red-fleshed kiwifruit, sarunashi, serotonin, sesquiterpenes, silver vine, sterols, stigmasterol, strange fruit, sugars, sunny peach, teng li gen, teng li gen root, terpenes, terpenoids, thaumatin-like protein, thiol-proteases, triterpenoids, undecanoic acid, unusual fruit, ursolic acid, vine pear, vitamin C, vitamin E, volatile oils, wonder fruit, wood berry, yang-tao, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, zeatin, zeatin riboside, zeaxanthin, Zyactinase®.

Background

  • Kiwi contains high amounts of vitamin E, serotonin, and potassium, and it is known to have the highest density of vitamin C among all fruits. It is also low-fat, cholesterol-free, and believed to be a good source of folic acid. However, even with these possible benefits, kiwi has been linked to a growing number of reports of allergies.
  • Kiwi is believed to have antioxidant effects and has been used to protect against lung problems and to improve heart health. However, high quality evidence supporting the use of kiwi in humans is lacking. More research is needed.

Evidence

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Dosing

The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

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Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

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Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.