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Mullein (Verbascum thapsus)
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.

Related Terms

  • Aaron's rod, Adam's flannel, beggar's blanket, beggar's flannel, beggar's stalk, big taper, blanket herb, blanket leaf, bullock's lungwort, candlewick plant, clot, clown's lungwort, common mullein, cuddy's lungs, duffle, feltwort, flannel plant, fluffweed, golden rod, great mullein, hag's taper, hare's taper, Jacob's staff, jupiter's staff, molene, mullein, mullein dock, old man's flannel, our lady's flannel, Peter's staff, rag paper, Scrophulariaceae (family), shepherd's club, shepherd's staff, torch, torches, velvet dock, velvet plant, Verbascum densiflorum, Verbascum fruticulosum, Verbascum lychnitis, Verbascum macrurum, Verbascum nigrum, Verbascum nobile, Verbascum phlomoides, Verbascum sinaiticum,Verbascum songaricum, Verbascum thapsiforme, Verbascum thapsus, Verbascum undulatum, white mullein, wild ice, wild ice leaf, woollen, wooly mullein, wooly mullin.
  • Note: The common name mullein is associated with many different species. The following species are covered here: Verbascum densiflorum, Verbascum fruticulosum, Verbascum lychnitis, Verbascum macrurum, Verbascum nigrum, Verbascum nobile, Verbascum phlomoides, Verbascum sinaiticum, Verbascum songaricum, Verbascum thapsiforme, Verbascum thapsus, Verbascum undulatum.

Background

  • Mullein has been used in natural medicine for centuries and is among the oldest known medicinal plants. Mullein was brought to North America from Europe by settlers and was commonly used as a remedy for cough and diarrhea. It is found along roadsides, fields and barren areas in the United States.
  • Traditionally, a poultice made from mullein leaves has been applied to the skin to treat ulcers and hemorrhoids. Mullein is typically used for inflammation in various areas of the body. The most commonly reported use is for respiratory tract conditions such as bronchitis and asthma, and also for ear pain associated with earaches. The proposed mechanism of action is by reducing the amount of mucous formation and as an expectorant.
  • Currently, there are no available scientific studies (animal or human) that examine the efficacy of mullein alone. As of July 2006, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that mullein flowers (Verbascum phlomoides L. or V. thapsiforme Schrad.) are likely safe for use as natural flavoring substances and natural adjuvants in food in small amounts. However, mullein is categorized as a food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued. Further research is required before any recommendations can be made.

Evidence

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Dosing

The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

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Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

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Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.