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Paprika (Capsicum annuum)
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.

Related Terms

  • Acyclic diterpene glycosides, agronômico-8, albar, aluminium, Americano sweet pepper, aminobutanoic acid, apigenin glucopyranoside arabinopyranoside, apocarotenoids, antheraxanthin, ascorbic acid, bell tower sweet pepper, belrubi paprika peppers, bet v 1, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, beta-galactosidase, benzaldehyde, bola, caffeic acid, calcium, capsaicin, capsaicinoids, capsanthin, capsanthone, capsianosides, capsiate, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinense, Capsicum cordiforme, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum hispidum var. glabriusculum, capsinoids, capsolutein, capsorubin, capsorubin diester, capsorubinal, carotenoids, CH-19 sweet, Charleston belle, chifengtexuan (Chinese), chile guajillo mexicano (Spanish), chili, chilli, chloride, chloroplast-localized small heat shock protein (sHSP), chrysoeriol, citric acid, copper, csemege (Hungarian), cseresznyepaprika (Hungarian), cucurbitaxanthin A, cytosolic small heat shock protein gene (CaHSP18), dehydroascorbic acid, diepikarpoxanthin, digalactosyl diacylglycerol, dihydrocapsiate, E-capsiate, édes csemege (Hungarian), édesnemes (Hungarian), exquisite delicate (csemegepaprika), ferredoxin, ferredoxin-like protein (AP1), ferredoxin-like protein cDNA (Pflp), feruloyl glucopyranoside, fibola sweet pepper, fibrillin, flavones, flavonoids, folate, fructose, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru2,6bisP), fumaric acid, furanoid oxides, fushimi sweet pepper, fushimi-togarashi (Japanese), glucose, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, guajillo peppers, half-sweet (félédes), hazera, hesperidine, hexose, histidine, hot (erős), Hungarian pepper, hypersensitive response-assisting protein (HRAP), hydroxycinnamic acid and derivatives, hypophasic carotenoids, isocitric acid, jaranda sweet pepper, jariza sweet pepper, jasmonic acid, jupiters, ketocarotenoids, Korean paprika, különleges (Hungarian), Leveillula taurica powdery mildew, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, lutein, luteolin, luteolin arabinopyranoside diglucopyranoside, luteolin glucuronide, luteolin glucopyranoside arabinopyranoside, lycopene, lysine, magali-r genotype, magnesium, malic acid, manganese, milder spiral, nitrogen, noble sweet (édesnemes), nonadienal, nonenamide, nonpungent pepper, nordihydrocapsiate, oil, oleic acids, oleoresins, orrón pepper of 'fresno de la vega,' oxocarotenoid, p101, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, paprena, papri queen, paprika oleoresin, paprike (Yiddish), papryka (Polish), park's whooper improved, patatin-like protein, pectins, pepperke, peroxidase, PSI-1.1 trypsin inhibitor, phosphorus, phytic acid, piment doux (French), pimento (Spanish), pimento pepper, pimentón de la vera (Spanish), pimiento (Spanish), pimiento dulce (Spanish), pimiento rhizosoil, pipeka, piperka (Bulgarian, Croatian, Macedonian), potassium, proline, protein, protein P23, provitamin A, phytol, pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase, pyrimidinone, pyrrolidine carboxylic acid, quercetin, quercetin raffinose, quercetin rhamnopyranoside, quinic acid, red chlorophyll (Chl) catabolite (RCC) reductase, red paprika, red spice paprika, rhamnopyranoside glucopyranoside, rózsa (Hungarian), Russian healthy sweet pepper, salicylate, sclereids (sclerenchyma tissue), serine proteinase inhibitor, serotonin, shikimic acid, smoked paprika, stachyose, starch, stearic acid, sterols (sitosterol and stigmasterol), sucrose, sucrose synthase, sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG), sulfur, sweet pepper, tannins, terpenes, total essential amino acids, triglycerides, trypsin inhibitor, tryptamine, tyramine, unsaturated fatty acids, vanillic acid, vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, vanillylamine, verbascose, vitamin A, vitamin C, violaxanthin, xanthophylls (capsorubin and capasanthin), yolo wonder, zeaxanthin, zeaxanthinal, zeaxanthinone, ziegenhorn Bello.

Background

  • Paprika is a spice made from the grinding of dried fruits of Capsicum annuum (sweet pepper or pimento). Sweet pepper is grown around the world and is used for color, flavor, and aroma. Some countries have used paprika for thousands of years. Now, it is most commonly grown in Hungary.
  • Sweet peppers contain little or no compounds known as capsaicinoids. However, some paprika is made from hot varieties, which contain higher levels of capsaicinoids (such as capsaicin, present in chili peppers). Paprika is rich in antioxidants, including vitamin C, vitamin A, capsanthin, beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. Many of these antioxidants are responsible for the color of paprika.
  • Paprika has been used for various conditions, including nausea, vomiting, and the desire to drink alcohol. There is limited human data that Capsicum annuum may have beneficial effects when used as a source of antioxidants or to promote weight loss. Better-designed studies are needed.

Evidence

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Dosing

The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

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Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

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Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.