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Syrian rue (Peganum harmala)

Synonyms/Common Names/Related Substances:

  • 2-Methyl harmine, 2-methylharmine, 3-(1H-indol-3-yl)quinoline, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)quinoline, 3,6-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-2-methylanthraquinone, 3alpha,3alpha-acetoxyolean-12-ene-27,28-dioic acid 28-methyl ester, 3alpha,27-dihydroxylup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid methyl ester, 3alpha-acetoxy-27-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid methyl ester, 3alpha-acetoxy-27-trans-caffeoyloxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid methyl ester, 3alpha-acetoxyolean-12-ene-27,28-dioic acid 28-methyl ester, 3-hydroxy-1,2,3,9-tetra-hydro-pyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazolin-4-ium chloride dehydrate (C(11)H(13)N(2)O(+)·Cl(-)·2H(2)O), 3-methyl-harmane, 3-phenylquinoline, 6-methoxyharmalan, 6-methoxyharman, 3-oxotirucalla-7,24-dien-21-oic acid, 7-O-(2'''-O-rhamnosyl)-2"-O-glucosylglucoside, 7-O-6"-O-glucosyl-2"-O-(3'''-acetylrhamnosyl) glucoside, 8-hydroxy-7-methoxy-2-methylanthraquinone, 11C-harmine, acacetin 7-O-rhamnoside, African rue, alpha-(4-nitrobenzylidine) harmine, anthraquinones, beta-carboline, canthin-6-one alkaloids, deoxyvasicine, deoxyvasicinone, desoxypeganine, digalactosyldiacylglycerols, dihydroconiferyl ferulate, dihydrosinapyl ferulate, esphand, fatty acids, flavonoids, fructose, gamma-harmine, glucose, glycoflavone 2'''-O-rhamnosyl-2"-O-glucosylcytisoside, harmal, harmal shrub, harmala alkaloids, harmaline, harmalol, harman alkaloids, harmel, harmidine, harmine, harmol, harmol glucuronide, harmol sulfate, huzerlik, isband, kaempferol, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, lipids, luotonin C, luotonin D, luotuo-peng, lupene-type triterpenoids, mercury (II) - harmaine, mercury (II) - harmaline, mercury (II) - harmine, monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, N-acyl tetrahydroharmine derivatives, nigellastrine-I, nigellastrine-II, nor-harmane, ozallaik, peganetin, peganidine, peganole, peganone, peganone-1 (3,6-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-2-methylanthraquinone), peganone-2 (8-hydroxy-7-methoxy-2-methylanthraquinone), peganum, Peganum harmala, Peganum harmala L., Peganum multisectum, Peganum multisectum maxim, Peganum multisectum maxim. Bobr., Peganum nigellastrum, Peganum nigellastrum Bunge, phenylpropanoids, prolin, pyrrolidinoquinazoline alkaloid, quercetin, quinoline alkaloids, rutin, steppenraute, sterols, sucrose, Syrian rue, tetraglycoside, tetrahydroharmine, triterpenoids, uzerlik, vasicine, (+)-vasicinol hydro-chloride dihydrate, vasicinone, wild rue, Zygophyllaceae (family).

Clinical Bottom Line/Effectiveness

Brief Background:

  • Peganum harmala, commonly called "Syrian rue," is native to China, the eastern Mediterranean region east to India, and the western United States (1;2). This perennial herb has been shown to spontaneously grow in arid and rocky areas (3).
  • Peganum harmala contains beta-carboline alkaloids (or harmala alkaloids), which are toxic to both humans and animals (1). These compounds have known hallucinogenic and strong monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory activity (4).
  • Harmala alkaloids, harmaline and harmine, are known to cause tremors and are widely used in experimental analysis for this effect (4;5;6;7;8;9;10;11;12;13;14;15;16;17;18;19;20;21;22;23).

Dosing/Toxicology

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Precautions/Contraindications

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Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

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Mechanism of Action

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History

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Evidence Table

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Evidence Discussion

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Products Studied

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.