Image for Ziziphus ( spp., spp.)
Ziziphus (Ziziphus spp., Zizyphus spp.)

Synonyms/Common Names/Related Substances:

  • 3-O-[(2-O-\a/-D-fucopyranosyl-3-O-\b/-D-glucopyranosyl)-\a/-arabi nopyranosyl]jujubogenin, 3-O-[alpha-D-fucopyranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-4-sulphate(1-->3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl]jujubogenin, 3-O-[alpha-L-fucopyranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl]jujubogenin, 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[(4-sulfo)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyljujubogenin, 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[(4-sulfo)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(20R,22R)-16beta,22:16alpha,30-diepoxydammar-24-ene-3beta,20-diol, 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyljujubogenin-20-O-(2,3,4-O-triacetyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyljujubogenin-20-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, 3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl(1 -> 2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1--> 3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl]jujubogenin, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroyl alphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroyl maslinic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylalphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylmaslinic acid, 3-O-trans-p-coumaroyl alphitolic acid, 3-O-trans-p-coumaroyl maslinic acid, 3-O-trans-p-coumaroylalphitolic acid, 3-O-trans-p-coumaroylmaslinic acid, 4\DP/-\b/-D-glucopyranosyl swertisin, 6'''-feruloyl spinosin, 7-beta-(4-hydroxy-3'-methoxybenzoyloxy)-betulinic acid, 7-beta-(4-hydroxybenzoyloxy)-betulinic acid, (25 S)-3-alpha-hydroxy-5-alpha-spirostane-2,12-dione, 27-(4-hydroxy-3'-methoxybenzoyloxy)-betulinic acid, abyssenine A, acetyljujuboside B, alkaloids, alphitolic acid, anthraquinones, banarasi karaka, ber, beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor, beta-sitosterol, betulinic acid, betulonic acid, bilayati, buckthorn, caffeic acid, calcium, carbohydrates, ceanothane, ceanothane-type triterpenes, chhuhara, Chinese jujube, chlorogenic acid, christinin A, christinin B, christinin C, christinin D, chromium, cinnamic acid, Codonopsis pilosula, colubrinic acid, copper, cyclic AMP (adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate), cyclopeptide, cyclopeptide alkaloids, dammarane saponins, dazao (Chinese), deachuine S10, epigouanic acid A, fatty acids, ferulic acid, fiber, flavonoids, flavonol glycoside, frangulanine-type cyclopeptide alkaloid, fructose, gallic acid, glucose, glycosides, gola, golden yellow, heizao (Chinese), hemicellulose, hongzao (Chinese), hyperoside, ilaichi, Indian jujube, iron, isozizyphursolic acid (18bH-urs-20(30)-en-2a-ol-28-oic acid), jubanine-C, jubanine-C scutianine-C, jubanine-E, jujubasaponine IV, jujube plum, jujuboside A, jujuboside A1, jujuboside B, jujuboside C, jujuboside C (3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl jujubogenin), kaithli, kakrola gola, katha, lanosta-25(26)-en-9alpha-ol-21-oic acid, lanosta-25(26)-en-22beta-ol-18-oic acid 3(19)-olide, lanostane-type triterpene, lotogenin ((15R,16R,20R,22R)-16-beta,22-epoxydammar-24-ene-3-beta,15-alpha,16-alpha,20-beta-tetraol), lotoside I (3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)]-beta-D-galactopyranosyl lotogenin), lotoside II (3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl lotogenin), lotusine G, lup-20(29)-en-32-ol-28-oic acid, lupane-type triterpenes, lupenoic acid, mauritine C, mauritine D, methylbetulinate, methylceanothate, Moroccan Zizyphus lotus (L.) Desf., mucronine A, mucronine B, mucronine C mucronine D, mucronine J, mundia murahra, nanche de la costa, nanche de la costa fruit, N-formyl cyclopeptide alkaloid, nickel, nummularine B, nummularine P, nummularine R, nummularogenin ((25 S)-3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-spirostane-2,12-dione), oleanane-type triterpenes, oleanonic acid, oxalic acid, oxyphyl line-A, pathan, pectin, peptide alkaloids, phenols, polyphenol oxidase, polysaccharide, poria cocos, proanthocyanidins, protojujuboside A, protojujuboside B, protojujuboside B1, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-[beta-xylosyl-(1-2)-alpha-rhamnoside] 4'-O-alpha-rhamnoside, resins, Rhamnaceae (family), rutin, safeda rohtak, saiboku-to, sanjoinine A, sanjoinine A dialdehyde, sanjoinine Ah1, sanjoinine D, sanjoinine G2, saponins, sativanine C, sativanine E, sativanine H, sativanine M, sativanine N, sativanine O, scutianine C, seb, seo, sitogluside, sonaur-2, sonaur-3, sour date, sour jujube decoction, spinosin, spiny zizyphus, takadi, tannic acid, tannins, terephthalic acid, terpenic-delta-lactone, tikari, triterpenes, triterpenoid, triterpenoid saponin, umaran, unabi (Zizyphus mill), ursolic acid, vanillic acid, wild zizyphus, xylopyrine A, xylopyrine B, xylopyrine C, xylopyrine D, xylopyrine E, xylopyrine F, zao (Chinese), ZG-3, Zhanhua winter jujube, zinc, zivulgarin (4\DP/-\b/-D-glucopyranosyl swertisin), Ziziphus, zizyberenalic acid, zizyphine A, zizyphulanostan-18-oic acid (lanosta-25(26)-en-22beta-ol-18-oic acid 3(19)-olide), zizyphulanostane-21-oic acid (lanosta-25(26)-en-9alpha-ol-21-oic acid), zizyphursolic acid (18bH-urs-20(30)-en-3b-ol-28-oic acid), Zizyphus cambodiana, Zizyphus fructus, Zizyphus joazeiro, Zizyphus joazeiro Mart., Zizyphus joazeiro Martius, Zizyphus jujuba, Zizyphus jujuba Mill., Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Dongzao, Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Zhanhua, Zizyphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu, Zizyphus lotus, Zizyphus mauritiana, Zizyphus mauritiana Lam., Zizyphus mauritiana var. banarasi karaka, Zizyphus mauritiana var. bilayati, Zizyphus mauritiana var. chhuhara, Zizyphus mauritiana var. gola, Zizyphus mauritiana var. golden yellow, Zizyphus mauritiana var. ilaichi, Zizyphus mauritiana var. kaithli, Zizyphus mauritiana var. kakrola gola, Zizyphus mauritiana var. katha, Zizyphus mauritiana var. mundia murahra, Zizyphus mauritiana var. pathan, Zizyphus mauritiana var. safeda rohtak, Zizyphus mauritiana var. seb, Zizyphus mauritiana var. seo, Zizyphus mauritiana var. sonaur-2, Zizyphus mauritiana var. sonaur-3, Zizyphus mauritiana var. takadi, Zizyphus mauritiana var. tikari, Zizyphus mauritiana var. umaran, Zizyphus mauritiana var. ZG-3, Zizyphus Mill., Zizyphus mistol, Zizyphus mistol Griseb., Zizyphus mistol seed oil, Zizyphus mouritiana, Zizyphus mucronata, Zizyphus mucronata Willd., Zizyphus nummularia, Zizyphus oenoplia, Zizyphus oxyphylla, Zizyphus oxyphylla Edgew., Zizyphus sativa, Zizyphus sativa Gaertn., zizyphus seeds, Zizyphus sonorensis, Zizyphus spina, Zizyphus spina-christi, Zizyphus spina-christi (L.) Willd., Zizyphus spinosa Hu, Zizyphus spinosae semen, Zizyphus trinervia, Zizyphus vulgaris, Zizyphus vulgaris Lam., Zizyphus xylopyra, Zizyphus-nummularia, Zizyphussativa.
  • Select combination products: Kanbaku-taiso-to (containing Glycyrrhizae radix, Tritici semen, and Zizyphi fructus), Tea Garden Valerian Zizyphus Dreams, Suan zau ren tang (Zizyphus spinosa and other herbs, which may include Chuan Xiong (rhizoma Chuanxiong), Zhi Mu (rhizoma Anemarrhenae), Gan Cao (radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae), Dang Shen (Codonopsis pilosula), Zhi Mu (Anemarrhena asphodeloides), and Fu Ling (Poria)), Saiko (Bupleurum species root, Scutellaria species root, Pinellia ternata tuber, Zizyphus vulgaris fruit, and Zingiber officinale rhizome).

Clinical Bottom Line/Effectiveness

Brief Background:

  • Ziziphus (synonym: Zizyphus) is a genus in the buckthorn family, Rhamnaceae, and it comprises about 40 species of spiny shrubs and small trees that are distributed in warm-temperate and subtropical regions. Well-known species include Zizyphus zizyphus (jujube), Zizyphus spina-christi from southwestern Asia, Zizyphus lotus from the Mediterranean region, and Zizyphus mauritiana (ber), which is found from western Africa to India. Zizyphus joazeiro grows in the Caatinga of Brazil. The fruit of Zizyphus species is edible, often very sweet and sugary, and is similar to the texture and flavor of a date.
  • Zizyphus spp. are used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea, ulcers, and fevers, and also as a sedative. For example, Suan Zao Ren, which contains the seed of Zizyphus spinosa, is used in traditional Chinese medicine. Zizyphus spinosa, also called sour jujube, spiny zizyphus, or wild zizyphus, has a calming effect. Suan Zao Ren Tang is a decoction used in traditional Chinese medicine that is prepared from Zizyphus spinosa and other herbs and used to treat insomnia, nocturnal emissions, somnolence, neurasthenia, menopausal syndrome, and excessive worrying. Although the exact formulation may vary, the following herbs may be included: Chuan Xiong (rhizoma Chuanxiong), Zhi Mu (rhizoma Anemarrhenae), Gan Cao (radix et rhizoma Glycyrrhizae), Dang Shen (Codonopsis pilosula), Zhi Mu (Anemarrhena asphodeloides), and Fu Ling (Poria).
  • Although there is very limited evidence from human studies that preparations containing Zizyphus spp. are effective in the treatment of insomnia, nocturnal emission, and stress, studies using Zizyphus spp. as a monotherapy in humans are lacking. Further research is needed before any part of Zizyphus plants may be recommended for any medical condition.

Dosing/Toxicology

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Precautions/Contraindications

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Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

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Mechanism of Action

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History

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Evidence Table

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Evidence Discussion

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Products Studied

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.